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Clinical characteristics and management of orbital apex syndrome: a 10-year multicentre experience

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Y.H. Im - Y.J. Kang - C-S. Park - D.M. Kim - Y.C. Kim - J-S. Kim - H. Ra - S.H. Park - D-W. Bae - H.R. Yum - Y.W. Chung - S.H. Hwang

BACKGROUND: Orbital apex syndrome (OAS) is a condition characterised by lesions within the orbital apex, leading to various ophthalmologic symptoms. This study aimed to analyse the clinical characteristics and treatment strategies of OAS with respect to aetiology.
METHODS: This retrospective analysis utilised data from 5 medical institutions between 2013 and 2022. Patients who were diagnosed with OAS were initially enrolled, but patients who failed to follow up at least 1 month were excluded. The prevalence of initial ophthalmologic symptoms and visual improvement after treatment was compared according to aetiology. Factors related to visual improvement were analysed.
RESULTS: Among 73 enrolled patients, the leading aetiology was tumours, followed by fungal infections and inflammation. Visual impairment and proptosis were prevalent in tumour-related OAS cases. Inflammation-related OAS exhibited a higher likelihood of painful eye movements and ophthalmoplegia. Ptosis was most frequently observed in fungal infection-related OAS. Notably, fungal infections emerged as the sole significant factor negatively impacting vision progression. In inflammation-related OAS, the time interval between symptom onset and the administration of steroids was longer in patients without visual improvement, even though there was no statistically significant difference.
CONCLUSIONS: Tumours were the predominant cause of OAS. Visual impairment was a common manifestation in tumour-related OAS, while fungal infections were strongly associated with a poor visual prognosis. The timely administration of steroids might be helpful for improving vision in patients with inflammation-related OAS. However, further studies are needed to enhance understanding and management of OAS.

Rhinology 0-0: 0-0, 0000

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